Saturday, December 02, 2017

Of the following International Cataloguing Principles, which comes first and should always be kept in mind when providing bibliographic descriptions and access points?

Of the following International Cataloguing Principles, which comes first and should always be kept in mind when providing bibliographic descriptions and access points?

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles
#LibrarianshipStudies #Cataloging

The principles in this statement are intended to guide the development of cataloguing codes and the decisions that cataloguers make. They apply to bibliographic and authority data, and consequently to current library catalogues, bibliographies and other datasets created by libraries.

They aim to provide a consistent approach to descriptive and subject cataloguing of bibliographic resources of all kinds.


  • 1. Scope
  • 2. General Principles
  • 3. Entities, Attributes, and Relationships
  • 4. Bibliographic Description
  • 5. Access Points
  • 6. Objectives and Functions of the Catalogue
  • 7. Foundations for Search Capabilities

READ MORE FROM SOURCE: Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

ALSO SHARED IN: Library and Information Science Articles and News in 2017

LIKE @librarianshipstudies for more important updates in LIbrary and Information Science

Friday, November 24, 2017

Library of Congress Classification (LCC) History and Development

Library of Congress Classification (LCC) History and Development

The Library of Congress was established in 1800 when the American legislatures were preparing to move from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington, D.C. Its earliest classification system was by size and, within each size group, by accession number. First recorded change in the arrangement of the collection appeared in the library’s third catalog, issued in 1808, which showed added categories for special bibliographic forms such as legal documents and executive papers.

Thursday, November 23, 2017

Library of Congress Classification

Library of Congress Classification

The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It was developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to organize and arrange the book collections of the Library of Congress. Over the course of the twentieth century, the system was adopted for use by other libraries as well, especially large academic libraries in the United States. It is currently one of the most widely used library classification systems in the world. The Library's Policy and Standards Division maintains and develops the system¹. In recent decades, as the Library of Congress made its records available electronically through its online catalog, more libraries have adopted LCC for both subject cataloging as well as shelflisting.

Read complete article from source: Library of Congress Classification

Library of Congress Classification

Research is an effort?

Research is an effort?


Research is an effort?

(a) To discover knowledge

(b) To discover and develop knowledge

(c) To verify the knowledge

(d) To discover, develop, and verify knowledge

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Library and Information Science Portal


Library and Information Science Portal (LIS Portal) is a web portal featuring top popular stories from the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog and other important sources.


  • Library and Information Science Portal Introduction Video
  • Library and Information Science Portal Introduction Presentation
  • Top 10 Featured Library and Information Science (LIS) Articles
  • Top 10 Featured Library and Information Science (LIS) News
  • Top 10 Facts Did You Know in Library and Information Science (LIS)
  • Top 10 Featured Library and Information Science (LIS) Lists
  • Featured Library and Information Science (LIS) Video
  • Featured Library and Information Science (LIS) Picture

Read original article in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog: LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PORTAL

Sunday, October 15, 2017



Z39.50 ➨ Z39.50 is a national and international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. It is a client–server, application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network. It is covered by ANSI/NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The National Information Standards Organization of the United States (NISO) relating to libraries begin with Z39. To use Z39.50, you will need either special software or have an ILS with Z39.50 capabilities. Z39.50 acts like a “back door” into a library catalog. In order to download another library’s records, that library has to allow Z39.50 access to its catalog. If it does, though, there is no fee to pay the library providing the record.


  • History
  • What Z39.50 Does
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Modernization Efforts

READ MORE FROM SOURCE: Z39.50 : Glossary of Library & Information Science

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Resource Description and Access RDA

Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a new library cataloging standard, successor to AACR2… … ...

Read original article in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog: RDA: Resource Description and Access

Subscribe to Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube channel:

Monday, September 18, 2017

Five Laws of Library Science

Five Laws of Library Science


FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE ➨ The Five laws of library science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931.

These laws are:

1. Books are for use.
2. Every reader his / her book.
3. Every book its reader.
4. Save the time of the reader.
5. The library is a growing organism.

These laws of Library Science are the "fundamental laws" of Library Science. These are applicable to any problem in the areas of library science, library service, and library practice. These laws are like pot containing oceans. Prior to their enunciation, the subject of Library Science had no philosophy. These laws gave a philosophical base, guaranteeing an everlasting future to the subject of library science, the profession of librarianship, and the use of libraries. These laws have provided a scientific approach to the subject of library science.


First Law: Books Are For Use

Implications of First Law
1. Open Access
2. Location
3. Library Hours
4. Library Building and Furniture
5. Book Selection Policy
6. Library Techniques
7. Publicity
8. Library Staff
9. Reference Service

Second Law: Every Reader His/Her Book

Implications of Second Law
1. Obligations of the State
2. Obligation of the Library Authority
3. Obligation of Library Staff
4. Obligation of the Reader

Third Law: Every Book Its Reader

Implications of Third Law
1. Open Access
2. Book Selection
3. Shelf Arrangement
4. Easy Accessibility
5. Cataloging
6. Reference Service
7. Publicity
8. Extension Service

Fourth Law: Save The Time Of The Reader

Implications of Fourth Law
1. Open Access
2. Location
3. Shelf Arrangement, Classification, and Cataloging
4. Stack-Room Guides
5. Issue and Return
6. Reference Service
7. Documentation Service
8. Library Staff

Fifth Law: The Library Is A Growing Organism

1. Balanced Growth
2. Casting Off the Old (Obsolete) and Preserving Valuable Books
3. Choice of a Classification Scheme
4. Choice of a Catalog Code
5. Modernization
6. Staff
7. Library Building - Provision for Future
8. Safeguards

Five Laws of Library Science - S.R. Ranganathan (Digitized Book)

Variant of Five Laws of Library Science

Five Laws of Library Science Infographic

We in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology believe that this article “Five Laws of Library Science” with multimedia contents is our most exhaustive and best work so far.  Kindly let us know your feedback.

READ MORE FROM SOURCE: Five Laws of Library Science

Monday, August 14, 2017

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)

PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)

PRECIS (PRESERVED CONTEXT INDEX SYSTEM)   PRECIS is an acronym for PREserved Context Index System or PREserved Context Indexing System. PRECIS is a computer assisted pre-coordinate subject indexing system developed by Derek Austin in 1968 as a result of long research which the Classification Research Group (CRG) undertook to give a new general classification for information control. In 1969 British librarians Derek Austin and Peter Butcher issued PRECIS: A rotated subject index system, published by the Council of the British National Bibliography. This appears to be the first published report on an innovative method for adding subject data in the form of descriptors to the computerized MARC record. This system is considered as the most important development in alphabetical approach to subject specification in recent years.

The system aims at providing an alphabetical subject index which is able to cater to the variant approaches of the users along with their context. In order to achieve this objective, the system arranges the components of a document,  into a significant sequence, thus, all the important components in the string are used as approach points. Simultaneously, the terms are displayed in such a fashion that every term is related to the next term in a context dependent way. Moreover, the system is amenable to computer operation, which further adds to the advantage of the system as the entries will be prepared and arranged automatically by the computer.

  • PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System)
  • Essential Features of PRECIS
  • Concept of PRECIS
  • PRECIS Indexing Procedure
  • Primary Operators
  • Secondary Operators
  • Primary Codes
  • Format of Entry
  • Filing Order
  • Conclusion

ALSO SHARED IN: Library and Information Science Articles and News in 2017

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

What are the Benefits of RDA?

What are the Benefits of RDA?



[Main article: Resource Description and Access]

=> RDA builds on the strengths of AACR2 but has some new features that make it more useful for description as a cataloging code for the digital environment in which libraries now operate.

=> RDA is better at catering for digital resources and for resources with multiple characteristics and will provide more guidance on the creation of authority headings.

=> RDA has been developed with the end-user in mind.

=> RDA provides a consistent, flexible and extensible framework for the description of all types of resources, including digital resources and those with multiple characteristics.
RDA is compatible with internationally established principles, models, and standards.

Friday, July 07, 2017

Resource Description and Access

Glossary of Library & Information Science
Glossary of Library & Information Science
Resource Description and Access

Glossary of Library & Information Science - RESOURCE DESCRIPTION AND ACCESS (RDA) ➨ RDA stands for “Resource Description and Access” and is the title of the standard, that is the successor to AACR2. Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Resource Description & Access (RDA) is a set of cataloging instructions based on FRBR and FRAD, for producing the description and name and title access points representing a resource. RDA offers libraries the potential to change significantly how bibliographic data is created and used. RDA is a standard for resource description and access designed for the digital world. It provides (i) A flexible framework for describing all resources (analog and digital) that is extensible for new types of material, (ii) Data that is readily adaptable to new and emerging database structures, (iii) Data that is compatible with existing records in online library catalogs. RDA is a package of data elements, guidelines, and instructions for creating library and cultural heritage resource metadata that are well-formed according to international models for user-focused linked data applications.  RDA goes beyond earlier cataloging codes in that it provides guidelines on cataloging digital resources and places a stronger emphasis on helping users find, identify, select, and obtain the information they want. RDA also supports the clustering of bibliographic records in order to show relationships between works and their creators.



Sunday, May 28, 2017

How to Sleep Well: Tips for Better Sleep for Librarians [UNDER DEVELOPMENT]

Librarians Personality Development
Librarians Personality Development
Sleep is essential. During sleep, your body repairs itself. A good night's sleep also improves learning. You also dream while sleeping. Many scientists say that it is during dreams that the whole day's memory is reorganized in the brain. Sleep plays a vital role in good health and well-being throughout your life. Getting enough quality sleep at the right times can help protect your mental health, physical health, quality of life, and safety. Sleep deficiency can raise your risk for some chronic health problems. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others. Sleep also helps you pay attention, make decisions, and be creative. While the amount of time people need to sleep varies, most people require 6-8 hours of good sleep to feel energized on waking up.


1 Background

2 How to Sleep Well: Tips for Better Sleep for Librarians

3 See also

4 External links


For Librarians Personality Development the primary and foremost thing is health and for a healthy body, you need a good relaxing sleep. Nowadays in modern libraries, most of the works by the librarians are done on the computer and their sedentary lifestyle makes them unfit. One of the problems which they develop over the time is sleeplessness which hurts their career and personal development. The problems in sleeping may occur due to various reasons; it may be due to professional work related stress, due to personal problems, lifestyle issues, or a combination of these and some other factors.

Librarians are the face of the library, and it is important they possess an impressive and strong personality. Librarians Personality Development is a section of this blog which covers topics such as, education, mind-power techniques, willpower, habits control, health, lifestyle, technology and communication skills. This article provides tips and techniques for a better sleep.


You can do and avoid the following to get good sleep:

Set Your Body Clock

Go to the bet at the same time every night and get up at the same time every day. Set your body clock and stick to a sleep schedule. Use the same sleep schedule even at weekends. Being consistent in the sleep and wake-up time strengthens your body's sleep-wake cycle.

Even if you have to go to bed later due to some important unavoidable reason some day, still it is very important to get up at your normal time.

Set the alarm time for wake up. When your alarm clock goes off, get up right away every day. Don't lie in or snooze.

If you don't fall asleep within about 30 minutes, leave your bedroom and do something relaxing, such as playing with your kid or listening to soothing music. Go back to bed when you're tired. Repeat as needed. Do breathing and relaxation exercises to get sleep.

Diet Control for a Good Sleep

It is very important to take care of what you eat and drink as it impacts your sleep greatly. Paying attention to following do’s and don’ts will help you sleep well:

Eat your dinner 2-3 hours before you go to bed.  Don’t eat heavy food or spicy food in your dinner. Eat easy to digest food at night and give you digestive system some time to work till your stomach settles down before you go to sleep.

Don’t go to bed hungry. It will be as bad as going to bed stuffed with a heavy meal. If you are feeling hungry, then you can eat a light snack or a glass of warm milk at least before an hour.

Avoid coffee, tea, alcohol, chocolate, tobacco, and products having nicotine or caffeine in the evening and night. Avoid foods and drinks high in carbohydrates, fat, salt, or sugar, especially in the night.

While it is important you drink plenty of water for a good health, you should avoid drinking water or other drinks half hour to one hour before you go to bed. It will save you from the inconvenience of going to the bathroom when you are in sleep.


3. Create a restful environment / Keep your room quiet and dark. If you do not have a separate room, you may not be able to do this. At least, you can request the other members of your family to try to be quiet.

4. Limit daytime naps

5. Include physical activity in your daily routine / Physical exercise helps, preferably in the afternoon, but not in the night.

6. Manage worries

7. Take time to slow down. If you are doing very active and suddenly you go to bed, you may not get sleep. So spend the last hour or so doing relatively non-stressful activities.

8. Do not read or watch TV when in bed. Use the bed for sleep only.

9. Learn to do relaxation exercises. / Practice breathing exercises or meditation, focusing on relaxing your body.


  • Last Updated: 2017-11-27
  • Written: 2017-05-28

  • Help us improve this article! Contact us with your feedback.

Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets, and shares ...

Saturday, May 20, 2017

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)

POPSI (POSTULATE-BASED PERMUTED SUBJECT INDEXING)  ➨ The inherent weakness of chain indexing has been its dependence on a scheme of classification. Another weakness was its disappearing chain. In view of this situation, the information scientists at the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Banglore, directed themselves from these limitations; the Postulate Based Permuted Subject Indexing (POPSI) is the results of these efforts. It was developed by Ganesh Bhattacharya.

POPSI does not depend on the Class Number but is based on Ranganathan’s postulates and principles of general theory of classification.

POPSI  is specifically based on:

(a) a set of postulated Elementary Categories (ECs) of the elements fit to form component of subject proposition.

Elementary Categories are:

Discipline (D) - It covers conventional field of study, e.g. Chemistry, Physics, etc.,

Entity (E) - e.g. Plant, Lens, Eye, Book, etc.,

Action (A) - e.g. Treatment, Migration, etc; and

Property (P) - It includes ideas denoting the concept of ‘attribute’ – qualitative or quantitative. e.g. Power, Capacity, Property, etc.

(b) a set of rules of syntax with reference to ECs

The Syntax is based on the Ranganathan’s general theory of classification.

(c) a set of indicator digits or notations to denote the ECs and their subdivisions. It is got by POPSI table as given below:

0 = Form modifier
1 = General treatment
2 = Phase relation
     2.1 = general
     2.2 = bias
     2.3 = comparison
     2.4 = similarity
     2.5 = difference
     2.6 = application
     2.7 = influence
3 = Time modifier
4 = Entity modifier
5 = Place modifier
6 = Entry
7 = Discipline

(d) a vocabulary control device designated as ‘Classaurus’.

   POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)
   Steps in POPSI (with Example)