Saturday, April 29, 2017

Chain Indexing

#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

CHAIN INDEXING  ➨ Chain Indexing or Chain Procedure is a mechanical method to derive subject index entries or subject headings from the class number of the document. It was developed by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. He first mentioned this in his book “Theory of Library Catalogue” in 1938.

In Chain Procedure, the indexer or cataloguer is supposed to start from where the classifier has left. No duplication of work is to be done. He/she has to derive subject headings or class index entries from the digit by digit interpretation of the class number of the document in the reverse direction, to provide the alphabetical approach to the subject of the document.

Ranganathan designed this new method of deriving verbal subject heading in 1934 to provide the subject approach to documents through the alphabetical part of a classified catalogue. This method was distinctly different from the enumerated subject heading systems like LCSH  or  SLSH. He discerned that classification and subject indexing were two sides of the same coin. Classifying a document is the translation of its specific subject into an artificial language of ordinal numbers which results in the formation of a class number linking together all the isolate ideas in the form of a chain. This chain of class numbers is retranslated into its verbal equivalent to formulate a subject heading that represents the subject contents of the document. The class number itself is the result of subject analysis of a document into its facet ideas and linked together by a set of indicator digits, particularly when a classification system like Colon Classification is used for the purpose. As this chain is used for deriving subject entries on the basis of a set of rules and procedures, this new system was called ‘Chain Procedure’. This approach inspired in many other models of subject indexing developed afterward, based upon classificatory principles and postulates.

Chain Indexing was originally intended for use with Colon Classification. However, it may be applied to any scheme of classification whose notation follows a hierarchical pattern.



Saturday, April 22, 2017

Library and Information Science News

Library and Information Science News

https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2017/04/library-and-information-science-news.html

Library and Information Science News [2017 Edition] is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the latest LIS news and updates for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals.
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A Featured News will be displayed in this blog post along with a brief summary, which is shared most recently to the readers of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog through its G+ community and other social media platforms.





Read full article on Librarianship Studies & Information Technologyhttps://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2017/04/library-and-information-science-news.html

Saturday, April 15, 2017

Pre-Coordinate Indexing Systems

Information Access Through The Subject



Nowadays most of the documents deal with complex and compound subjects, each comprising a number of components or concepts. The coordination of these component terms is either done at the input stage or at the output stage. The index in which the coordination of components (index terms) is done at the input stage, is known as a pre-coordinate index.  Coordination of index terms at the input stage means coordination of index terms at the time of preparation of the index by the indexer. In pre-coordinate indexing, a number of selected terms or keywords are coordinated by the indexer and the cards are prepared for display to the users.
         
Examples: Ranganathan’s Chain Indexing, G. Bhattacharya’s POPSI, and Derek Austin’s PRECIS,  COMPASS,  etc.


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Saturday, April 01, 2017

Library and Information Science Videos

Library and Information Science Videos


Library and Information Science Videos
#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

Library and Information Science Videos is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the finest LIS videos for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals. The videos are sourced from Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube Channel which are organized based on the categories (or labels) of Librarianship Studies blog.

A featured video will be displayed in this blog post along with a brief summary. It will also be displayed at the bottom of the blog in a large view (recommended). It is important to note that the large view of the featured video is available only in the web version. So if you are viewing on a mobile phone or some mobile device then go to the bottom of the blog post area to locate and visit the option "View web version" to find the featured video.

Contents


  • Background
  • Featured Video
  • Videos in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube Channel

BACKGROUND

I always wanted to see beautiful libraries of the world like the Library of Congress of Washington D.C., the British Library of London, and the Bodleian Library of Oxford. I also wanted to view Library and Information Science tutorial videos by top-ranked library and i-schools. There are some topics which cannot be demonstrated effectively through text (as in article form), where video format is preferred. For example, if the subject is like Use of Robots In Libraries, then it would be more interesting to see a video showing robots in action in libraries. Likewise, a biography of a library and information science luminary like Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, Dr. Carla Hayden, Lois Mai Chan, or Charles Ammi Cutter should better be viewed in a video. So an idea came to my mind to create a YouTube Channel on Library and Information Science with top quality videos on the pattern of Khan Academy.

Library and Information Science Videos supports the purpose of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology to provide leadership for the development, promotion, and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all. Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog is envisioned as the Britannica, The Huffington Post, Khan Academy, and more closely like the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences; an authoritative source for consultation and reference for any library or information profession related issue and a treasure hub of knowledge on Library and Information Science, which is open and free for all the library professionals worldwide.

FEATURED VIDEO

Dr. Carla Hayden: President Obama's Nominee For The Librarian Of Congress - [Watch this video on the large screen at the bottom of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog - Recommended] - This video is created by Obama White House Archives to introduce Dr. Carla Hayden as President Obama's Nominee For The Librarian Of Congress. See Dr. Carla Hayden in action as she speaks about her career and experience as a librarian, and tour the Library of Congress and Enoch Pratt Free Library with this incredible video.

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Monday, March 20, 2017

Vocabulary Control

Vocabulary Control
Information Access Through The Subject

VOCABULARY CONTROL
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The term ‘vocabulary control’ refers to a limited set of terms that must be used to index documents, and to search for these documents, in a particular system. It may be defined as a list of terms showing their relationships and used to represent the specific subject of the document.


An information system may help the user by explicitly assigning index terms (that is, words or notations) to the documents and controlling, at least in the case of alphabetical (word) systems, the  semantic and often the syntatic relationships between these index terms the words (which may be subject  headings or descriptors) are assigned from  recognized subject heading lists or thesauri, and the notations from recognized classification schedules, and thus use controlled vocabulary.  A controlled vocabulary is one in which there is only one term or notation in the vocabulary for any one concept. The Library of  Congress List of Subject Headings is an example of a controlled alphabetical vocabulary, and the Dewey Decimal Classification is an example of a notational vocabulary (By definition, all notational vocabularies must be controlled).


The controlled vocabulary performs several tasks:
  • It usually explicitly records the hierarchical and affinitive/associative relations of a concept. Examples: Allergy, narrower-term: Hay fever; 385 (Railroad transportation), 381.1 (economic aspects of railroad transportation)
  • It establishes the size and scope of each topic. For example, whether or not the word baseball or the notation 796.357 is to include the concept softball.
In addition, for word based systems, the controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval.


Contents



Vocabulary Control
  • Subject Heading List
    • List of Subject Headings-General Principles
  • Thesaurus
    • Structure of Thesaurus
    • Relationship Between Terms
    • Thesauri and Subject Headings List
    • Thesauri and Classification Schemes
    • Thesauro-Facet
    • Classaurus
  • Systematic Arrangement




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Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Problems of Natural Language in Indexing

Information Access Through The Subject

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A new article in the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog provides an exhaustive description of Problems of Natural Language in Indexing.

Derived indexing is based on the natural language of the documents which proves to be problematic sometimes in the Subject Indexing Process. These problems prompted to move towards the use of Assigned indexing. These problems  can be categorized under two heads:
  1. Problems inherent in the language
  2. Problems pertaining to relationships
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Saturday, March 04, 2017

Indexing Languages

Information Access Through The Subject

#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

A new article in the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog provides an exhaustive description of Indexing Languages.

A system for naming subjects in the way that we have described is called an indexing language, and, like any other language, it will consist of two parts: vocabulary and syntax.

Indexing language is a set of items (vocabulary) and devices for handling the relationships between them in a system for providing index descriptions. Indexing language is also referred to as retrieval language … … … 


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RDA Cataloging News and RDA Bibliography

RDA Cataloging News and RDA Bibliography

New RDA Toolkit Design + Implementation of the LRM in RDA + RDA Toolkit Update, February 14, 2017
https://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2016/05/rda-cataloging-news.html
#RDA #RDATOOLKIT #RDABLOG #LRM #LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

RDA Cataloging News and RDA Bibliography article of Resource Description & Access (RDA) or RDA Blog blog is updated with new updates providing details of the new RDA Toolkit design and Implementation of the LRM in RDA

RDA Toolkit website has got a new elegant design:
At the top, there are 7 main links/menus, viz., HOME, SUBSCRIBE, NEWS & INFORMATION, TRAINING RESOURCES, RDA IN TRANSLATION, SHOP RDA, and MORE RESOURCES. The HOME refers to the RDA Toolkit home page. SUBSCRIBE menu has submenus: Pricing, New Subscriber, Renew, Authorized Distributors, Consortia, and Purchase Offline. NEWS & INFORMATION follows which is like a blog with new updates on RDA  … … ...

Implementation of the LRM in RDA:
The RDA Steering Committee (RSC) agreed at its November 2016 meeting to adopt the draft IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM) as a conceptual model for the development of RDA: Resource Description and Access, replacing the Functional Requirements family of models (FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD) that are superseded by the LRM … …

RDA Toolkit Update, February 14, 2017:
A new release of the RDA Toolkit is published on Tuesday, February 14. This release contains a small number of Fast Track changes made through the normal Fast Track process … … ...
Read full update on RDA Blog: https://resourcedescriptionandaccess.blogspot.com/2016/05/rda-cataloging-news.html

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Friday, February 24, 2017

Assigned Indexing

 Information Access Through The Subject

A new article in the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog provides an exhaustive description of Assigned Indexing.

Assigned Indexing
If the terms are selected from the title or the text of a document and used without any alteration as index terms, then this is referred to as natural language indexing or derived indexing. If however, the selected terms are translated or encoded into authorized terms by the help of a prescribed list, then the indexing language becomes controlled or artificial. This process is called Assigned Indexing ... ... ...