Sunday, May 28, 2017

How to Sleep Well: Tips for Better Sleep for Librarians [UNDER DEVELOPMENT]

Librarians Personality Development
Librarians Personality Development
Sleep is essential. During sleep, your body repairs itself. A good night's sleep also improves learning. You also dream while sleeping. Many scientists say that it is during dreams that the whole day's memory is reorganized in the brain. Sleep plays a vital role in good health and well-being throughout your life. Getting enough quality sleep at the right times can help protect your mental health, physical health, quality of life, and safety. Sleep deficiency can raise your risk for some chronic health problems. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others. Sleep also helps you pay attention, make decisions, and be creative. While the amount of time people need to sleep varies, most people require 6-8 hours of good sleep to feel energized on waking up.

Contents

1 Background

2 How to Sleep Well: Tips for Better Sleep for Librarians

3 See also

4 External links


BACKGROUND

For Librarians Personality Development the primary and foremost thing is health and for a healthy body, you need a good relaxing sleep. Nowadays in modern libraries, most of the works by the librarians are done on the computer and their sedentary lifestyle makes them unfit. One of the problems which they develop over the time is sleeplessness which hurts their career and personal development. The problems in sleeping may occur due to various reasons; it may be due to professional work related stress, due to personal problems, lifestyle issues, or a combination of these and some other factors.

Librarians are the face of the library, and it is important they possess an impressive and strong personality. Librarians Personality Development is a section of this blog which covers topics such as, education, mind-power techniques, willpower, habits control, health, lifestyle, technology and communication skills. This article provides tips and techniques for a better sleep.


HOW TO SLEEP WELL: TIPS FOR BETTER SLEEP FOR LIBRARIANS

You can do and avoid the following to get good sleep:

Set Your Body Clock

Go to the bet at the same time every night and get up at the same time every day. Set your body clock and stick to a sleep schedule. Use the same sleep schedule even at weekends. Being consistent in the sleep and wake-up time strengthens your body's sleep-wake cycle.

Even if you have to go to bed later due to some important unavoidable reason some day, still it is very important to get up at your normal time.

Set the alarm time for wake up. When your alarm clock goes off, get up right away every day. Don't lie in or snooze.

If you don't fall asleep within about 30 minutes, leave your bedroom and do something relaxing, such as playing with your kid or listening to soothing music. Go back to bed when you're tired. Repeat as needed. Do breathing and relaxation exercises to get sleep.

Diet Control for a Good Sleep

It is very important to take care of what you eat and drink as it impacts your sleep greatly. Paying attention to following do’s and don’ts will help you sleep well:

Eat your dinner 2-3 hours before you go to bed.  Don’t eat heavy food or spicy food in your dinner. Eat easy to digest food at night and give you digestive system some time to work till your stomach settles down before you go to sleep.

Don’t go to bed hungry. It will be as bad as going to bed stuffed with a heavy meal. If you are feeling hungry, then you can eat a light snack or a glass of warm milk at least before an hour.

Avoid coffee, tea, alcohol, chocolate, tobacco, and products having nicotine or caffeine in the evening and night. Avoid foods and drinks high in carbohydrates, fat, salt, or sugar, especially in the night.

While it is important you drink plenty of water for a good health, you should avoid drinking water or other drinks half hour to one hour before you go to bed. It will save you from the inconvenience of going to the bathroom when you are in sleep.

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3. Create a restful environment / Keep your room quiet and dark. If you do not have a separate room, you may not be able to do this. At least, you can request the other members of your family to try to be quiet.

4. Limit daytime naps

5. Include physical activity in your daily routine / Physical exercise helps, preferably in the afternoon, but not in the night.

6. Manage worries

7. Take time to slow down. If you are doing very active and suddenly you go to bed, you may not get sleep. So spend the last hour or so doing relatively non-stressful activities.

8. Do not read or watch TV when in bed. Use the bed for sleep only.

9. Learn to do relaxation exercises. / Practice breathing exercises or meditation, focusing on relaxing your body.


SEE ALSO

ARTICLE HISTORY
  • Written 2017-05-28

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Saturday, May 20, 2017

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)

POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)



POPSI (POSTULATE-BASED PERMUTED SUBJECT INDEXING)  ➨ The inherent weakness of chain indexing has been its dependence on a scheme of classification. Another weakness was its disappearing chain. In view of this situation, the information scientists at the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Banglore, directed themselves from these limitations; the Postulate Based Permuted Subject Indexing (POPSI) is the results of these efforts. It was developed by Ganesh Bhattacharya.

POPSI does not depend on the Class Number but is based on Ranganathan’s postulates and principles of general theory of classification.

POPSI  is specifically based on:

(a) a set of postulated Elementary Categories (ECs) of the elements fit to form component of subject proposition.

Elementary Categories are:

Discipline (D) - It covers conventional field of study, e.g. Chemistry, Physics, etc.,

Entity (E) - e.g. Plant, Lens, Eye, Book, etc.,

Action (A) - e.g. Treatment, Migration, etc; and

Property (P) - It includes ideas denoting the concept of ‘attribute’ – qualitative or quantitative. e.g. Power, Capacity, Property, etc.

(b) a set of rules of syntax with reference to ECs

The Syntax is based on the Ranganathan’s general theory of classification.

(c) a set of indicator digits or notations to denote the ECs and their subdivisions. It is got by POPSI table as given below:

POPSI Table
0 = Form modifier
1 = General treatment
2 = Phase relation
     2.1 = general
     2.2 = bias
     2.3 = comparison
     2.4 = similarity
     2.5 = difference
     2.6 = application
     2.7 = influence
3 = Time modifier
4 = Entity modifier
5 = Place modifier
6 = Entry
7 = Discipline

(d) a vocabulary control device designated as ‘Classaurus’.

Contents
   POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing)
   Format
   Steps in POPSI (with Example)
   Conclusion

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Chain Indexing

#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

CHAIN INDEXING  ➨ Chain Indexing or Chain Procedure is a mechanical method to derive subject index entries or subject headings from the class number of the document. It was developed by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. He first mentioned this in his book “Theory of Library Catalogue” in 1938.

In Chain Procedure, the indexer or cataloguer is supposed to start from where the classifier has left. No duplication of work is to be done. He/she has to derive subject headings or class index entries from the digit by digit interpretation of the class number of the document in the reverse direction, to provide the alphabetical approach to the subject of the document.

Ranganathan designed this new method of deriving verbal subject heading in 1934 to provide the subject approach to documents through the alphabetical part of a classified catalogue. This method was distinctly different from the enumerated subject heading systems like LCSH  or  SLSH. He discerned that classification and subject indexing were two sides of the same coin. Classifying a document is the translation of its specific subject into an artificial language of ordinal numbers which results in the formation of a class number linking together all the isolate ideas in the form of a chain. This chain of class numbers is retranslated into its verbal equivalent to formulate a subject heading that represents the subject contents of the document. The class number itself is the result of subject analysis of a document into its facet ideas and linked together by a set of indicator digits, particularly when a classification system like Colon Classification is used for the purpose. As this chain is used for deriving subject entries on the basis of a set of rules and procedures, this new system was called ‘Chain Procedure’. This approach inspired in many other models of subject indexing developed afterward, based upon classificatory principles and postulates.

Chain Indexing was originally intended for use with Colon Classification. However, it may be applied to any scheme of classification whose notation follows a hierarchical pattern.



Saturday, April 22, 2017

Library and Information Science News

Library and Information Science News

https://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2017/04/library-and-information-science-news.html

Library and Information Science News [2017 Edition] is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the latest LIS news and updates for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals.
LIBRARIANSHIP STUDIES - LOGO
A Featured News will be displayed in this blog post along with a brief summary, which is shared most recently to the readers of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog through its G+ community and other social media platforms.





Read full article on Librarianship Studies & Information Technologyhttps://librarianshipstudies.blogspot.com/2017/04/library-and-information-science-news.html

Saturday, April 15, 2017

Pre-Coordinate Indexing Systems

Information Access Through The Subject



Nowadays most of the documents deal with complex and compound subjects, each comprising a number of components or concepts. The coordination of these component terms is either done at the input stage or at the output stage. The index in which the coordination of components (index terms) is done at the input stage, is known as a pre-coordinate index.  Coordination of index terms at the input stage means coordination of index terms at the time of preparation of the index by the indexer. In pre-coordinate indexing, a number of selected terms or keywords are coordinated by the indexer and the cards are prepared for display to the users.
         
Examples: Ranganathan’s Chain Indexing, G. Bhattacharya’s POPSI, and Derek Austin’s PRECIS,  COMPASS,  etc.


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Saturday, April 01, 2017

Library and Information Science Videos

Library and Information Science Videos


Library and Information Science Videos
#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

Library and Information Science Videos is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the finest LIS videos for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals. The videos are sourced from Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube Channel which are organized based on the categories (or labels) of Librarianship Studies blog.

A featured video will be displayed in this blog post along with a brief summary. It will also be displayed at the bottom of the blog in a large view (recommended). It is important to note that the large view of the featured video is available only in the web version. So if you are viewing on a mobile phone or some mobile device then go to the bottom of the blog post area to locate and visit the option "View web version" to find the featured video.

Contents


  • Background
  • Featured Video
  • Videos in Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube Channel

BACKGROUND

I always wanted to see beautiful libraries of the world like the Library of Congress of Washington D.C., the British Library of London, and the Bodleian Library of Oxford. I also wanted to view Library and Information Science tutorial videos by top-ranked library and i-schools. There are some topics which cannot be demonstrated effectively through text (as in article form), where video format is preferred. For example, if the subject is like Use of Robots In Libraries, then it would be more interesting to see a video showing robots in action in libraries. Likewise, a biography of a library and information science luminary like Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, Dr. Carla Hayden, Lois Mai Chan, or Charles Ammi Cutter should better be viewed in a video. So an idea came to my mind to create a YouTube Channel on Library and Information Science with top quality videos on the pattern of Khan Academy.

Library and Information Science Videos supports the purpose of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology to provide leadership for the development, promotion, and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all. Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog is envisioned as the Britannica, The Huffington Post, Khan Academy, and more closely like the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences; an authoritative source for consultation and reference for any library or information profession related issue and a treasure hub of knowledge on Library and Information Science, which is open and free for all the library professionals worldwide.

FEATURED VIDEO

Dr. Carla Hayden: President Obama's Nominee For The Librarian Of Congress - [Watch this video on the large screen at the bottom of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog - Recommended] - This video is created by Obama White House Archives to introduce Dr. Carla Hayden as President Obama's Nominee For The Librarian Of Congress. See Dr. Carla Hayden in action as she speaks about her career and experience as a librarian, and tour the Library of Congress and Enoch Pratt Free Library with this incredible video.

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Monday, March 20, 2017

Vocabulary Control

Vocabulary Control
Information Access Through The Subject

VOCABULARY CONTROL
#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES


The term ‘vocabulary control’ refers to a limited set of terms that must be used to index documents, and to search for these documents, in a particular system. It may be defined as a list of terms showing their relationships and used to represent the specific subject of the document.


An information system may help the user by explicitly assigning index terms (that is, words or notations) to the documents and controlling, at least in the case of alphabetical (word) systems, the  semantic and often the syntatic relationships between these index terms the words (which may be subject  headings or descriptors) are assigned from  recognized subject heading lists or thesauri, and the notations from recognized classification schedules, and thus use controlled vocabulary.  A controlled vocabulary is one in which there is only one term or notation in the vocabulary for any one concept. The Library of  Congress List of Subject Headings is an example of a controlled alphabetical vocabulary, and the Dewey Decimal Classification is an example of a notational vocabulary (By definition, all notational vocabularies must be controlled).


The controlled vocabulary performs several tasks:
  • It usually explicitly records the hierarchical and affinitive/associative relations of a concept. Examples: Allergy, narrower-term: Hay fever; 385 (Railroad transportation), 381.1 (economic aspects of railroad transportation)
  • It establishes the size and scope of each topic. For example, whether or not the word baseball or the notation 796.357 is to include the concept softball.
In addition, for word based systems, the controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval.


Contents



Vocabulary Control
  • Subject Heading List
    • List of Subject Headings-General Principles
  • Thesaurus
    • Structure of Thesaurus
    • Relationship Between Terms
    • Thesauri and Subject Headings List
    • Thesauri and Classification Schemes
    • Thesauro-Facet
    • Classaurus
  • Systematic Arrangement




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Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Problems of Natural Language in Indexing

Information Access Through The Subject

#LIBRARIANSHIPSTUDIES

A new article in the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog provides an exhaustive description of Problems of Natural Language in Indexing.

Derived indexing is based on the natural language of the documents which proves to be problematic sometimes in the Subject Indexing Process. These problems prompted to move towards the use of Assigned indexing. These problems  can be categorized under two heads:
  1. Problems inherent in the language
  2. Problems pertaining to relationships
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